SAMPLE PAPER: Artificial intelligence in Critical care

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Artificial intelligence in Critical care

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The chosen healthcare technology is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). By using AI, it is possible to make disease predictions as well as phenotypes. Gutierrez’s (2020) article has been chosen to support the project. This is because it primarily discusses how AI can be implemented in ICU. If an old man faints and is taken to hospital and the test cannot show the cause, AI can be used to diagnose a disease like cancer accurately.

Explanation and background

According to Gutierrez (2020), AI is simulated human intelligence by machines. In the ICU, it has been used in various ways, including helping to recognize hidden diseases that doctors may need help identifying, especially when the dataset is heterogeneous or noise prone. For AI to work, the system needs to be fed with alot of patient data to learn from past diagnoses and therefore be able to come up with diagnoses that are more accurate and timely than a doctor’s. The AI also develops the right treatment plans that physicians can follow (Komorowski et al., 2018).

According to  Meyer et al. (2018), AI can be integrated to work on all patients who step into the ICU, mainly those with diseases that cannot easily be diagnosed. It shortens the diagnosis time and gives precise results together with the right treatment plan. Matheny et al. (2020) argue that despite AI bringing positive changes in medicine, it is simply a system vulnerable to hacking like any other. If no proper security measures are followed, it can lead to the leakage of patient data and corruption of its intelligence, leading to erroneous results that can endanger patient lives. There is also the risk of racial bias; this depends on who created the software and the data it has been fed. AI is also very expensive and may not be afforded by everyone, especially those without insurance.

Risks and Benefits

Patients have a lot to benefit from using AI in the ICU. Gutierrez (2020) has analyzed several benefits, ranging from predicting the ICU length of ICU stay, ICU mortality, and chances of developing complications; AI also improves ventilation among patients who cannot breathe independently. Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) is an open-source database that can tell how long a patient will spend in the ICU and if there is a chance for the patient to be readmitted. Predicting whether a trauma or pediatric patient admitted to the ICU will survive is possible using decision trees and machine learning algorithms. For this to happen, the AI must interpret a highly complex model using many variables (Thorsen-Meyer et al., 2020).

Matheny et al. (2020) have stated that something extra must be done to promote positive outcomes with AI. It is not just adding more data into the system. A single pixel can make an AI think a bacteria is a virus and can confidently give a wrong diagnosis through such errors. Therefore to improve AI, it needs to be connected with human and scientific inputs. AI needs to be integrated with scientific laws for scientific inputs, and then the data can be augmented with expert human insights.

In addition, it is important to have devices that can show precisely how the AI arrives at its conclusions and have an expert human confirm this before the AI results are applied. This may seem like an additional waste of time; however, it reduces the risks significantly. Again besides AI, other models can be used to make the diagnosis, and therefore, results can then be compared. This way chance of complications can be highly reduced (Challen et al., 2018).

Interdisciplinary team’s Roles and Responsibilities

According to Komorowski et al. (2018), the interdisciplinary team members in the ICU include physicians, dieticians,   therapists, clinical pharmacists, and clinical psychologists. The physicians diagnose using AI-equipped machines to determine a treatment plan and quickly and easily understand the patient’s ailment. The physicians also review the appropriate therapeutic intervention required for patient care and make the right decision.

Dietitians are responsible for informing the team on the timing of when to introduce food to patients. They also monitor the patient macro and micronutrient requirements and the fluids and electrolytes (Meyer et al., 2018). Therapists available depend on the patient’s condition. For instance, if a patient cannot breathe independently, the respiratory therapist monitors the breathing with assistive machine support. The respiratory AI helps the therapist determine when the patient is breathing properly. Pharmacists ensure that the right medicine is given at the right doses. The psychologist helps the patient cope by reducing any distress and making the patient feel calm and relaxed.

The nurse plays a critical role in the ICU, especially where AI is used. The AI can process data by reducing the nurse’s work, but then the nurse uses the knowledge to confirm the info and carry out the instructions. The nurse is the main person who evaluates the patient’s condition and administers treatment. When AI is involved, it can inform the nurse of the exact and appropriate time to administer medications and doses. When all the other personnel leave the ICU, the nurses are left with the patient and continue monitoring the changes (Gutierrez, 2020).

According to Meyer et al. (2018), Interdisciplinary teams are known to work fast and effectively because all resources are merged into one body. However, there exist challenges, especially in the ICU. All specialists tend to rely too much on the nurses to the point that they may need help to complete their specific tasks. Sometimes there could be miscommunication since people from different departments come together and may not be used to working together. Poor decision-making because the person making the decision is more senior than the rest.

Nursing Scope of Practice

In order to operate and understand AI in the ICU setup, registered nurses (RN) need empirical knowledge. Challen et al. (2018) argue that this knowledge helps nurses understand abstract and theoretical explanations. This makes the nurse well-equipped with the knowledge of setting and understanding relations between variables.

RN nurses need to be skilled in information technology (IT) to understand the use of AI in the healthcare environment, especially in the ICU. By this, it does not mean they need to be computer experts; basic knowledge of interpreting AI results and feeding data to the system is vital. According to Meyer et al. (2018), AI mainly processes data to make decisions and conclusions.

Farhud and Zokaei (2021) argue that nurses with curious and optimistic attitudes and compassion are better off working in an ICU that has embraced AI. Through curiosity, they can understand new technology and easily embrace and use it.

Patient Education

AI is a new technology that is not easily acceptable to people. Like any other new technology, people will always be hesitant to embrace it (Gutierrez, 2020). Therefore, patients and their families need to be informed about the use of AI, how it works, and its benefits to the treatment. Before making their decision, they also need to understand the cons, like the chance of misdiagnoses, privacy breaches, and the increased cost of their treatment.

In order to teach them, the doctors and nurses need to interact with the patient and their family and have a sit down where they explain how AI is generally used and how it will be applied to their case. This is done by remembering to include the risks together with the benefit. This way, they will easily make informed consent (Matheny et al., 2020).

Because AI is new, some people feel that it will take over doctors’ jobs; others feel there are high chances of data breaches by using AI. However, in an actual sense, according to Komorowski et al. (2018), AI is improving lives by doing activities that humans would take too long to achieve or cannot achieve. Therefore the cultural impact of AI is making life simpler, more efficient, and even safer.

To evaluate the training and teaching of the patient and their families about using AI in ICU,  AI can determine how well the patients and families understand its use. Excell can also review the teaching data (Thorsen-Meyer et al., 2020).


AI, which is human intelligence that machines have simulated, uses data sets to help with the diagnosis of diseases and develop the right treatment plans. AI has also been used to predict mortality. With all the benefits, some risks include data breaches or chances of misdiagnosis.

In the ICU, when AI is applied, the following interdisciplinary team members are available physicians, dieticians, therapists, clinical pharmacists, and clinical psychologists. In order to operate and understand AI, the RN nurse needs to have empirical knowledge, IT skills, and a positive, curious attitude toward the technology. When educating patients and their families, they must be informed of the benefits and risks of its use. Farhud and Zokaei’s (2021) article is a very beneficial additional resource that can be used to understand the use of AI in healthcare.


Challen, R., Denny, J., Pitt, M., Gompels, L., Edwards, T., & Tsaneva-Atanasova, K. (2019). Artificial intelligence, bias and clinical safety. BMJ Quality & Safety, 28(3), 231-237.

Farhud, D. D., & Zokaei, S. (2021). Ethical Issues of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Healthcare. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 50(11), i.

Gutierrez, G. (2020). Artificial intelligence in the intensive care unit. Critical Care, 24(101), 1-9.

Komorowski, M., Celi, L. A., Badawi, O., Gordon, A. C., & Faisal, A. A. (2018). The artificial intelligence clinician learns optimal treatment strategies for sepsis in intensive care. Nature Medicine, 24(11), 1716-1720.

Matheny, M. E., Whicher, D., & Israni, S. T. (2020). Artificial intelligence in health care: A report from the National Academy of Medicine. Jama, 323(6), 509-510.

Meyer, A., Zverinski, D., Pfahringer, B., Kempfert, J., Kuehne, T., Sündermann, S. H., … & Eickhoff, C. (2018). Machine learning for real-time prediction of complications in critical care: A retrospective study. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 6(12), 905-914.

Thorsen-Meyer, H. C., Nielsen, A. B., Nielsen, A. P., Kaas-Hansen, B. S., Toft, P., Schierbeck, J., … & Perner, A. (2020). Dynamic and explainable machine learning prediction of mortality in patients in the intensive care unit: a retrospective study of high-frequency data in electronic patient records. The Lancet Digital Health, 2(4), e179-e191.

Exploring the Impact of Healthcare Laws in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive Analysis

A writer analyzing key healthcare laws in Saudi Arabia on a laptop

#SAMPLEPAPER Examining Healthcare Laws in Saudi Arabia

Student’s name



The healthcare system in Saudi Arabia has undergone significant transformations in recent years, evolving from a basic setup to a more sophisticated and accessible one. This essay examines the key healthcare laws in Saudi Arabia that have been instrumental in this transformation, focusing on their implications and challenges (Al Asmri et al., 2019).

In Saudi Arabia, several laws directly impact healthcare, ranging from regulations on medical practice to laws governing patient rights and insurance coverage. This paper aims to examine three laws in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that directly impact healthcare. Specifically, the paper will identify the code and section where these laws are located, discuss their goals and purposes, evaluate their potential impact on improving health in the Kingdom, and identify any concerns or issues associated with these laws.

Law 1: Analyzing the Ministerial Resolution on Consent for Medical Procedures in Saudi Arabia

The Ministerial Resolution on Consent for Medical Procedures, enacted under the Regulations on the Practice of Medicine and Dentistry of the Royal Decree M/3 of October 2, 1988, is a significant piece of legislation in the healthcare sector of Saudi Arabia. This law is under the Regulations on the Practice of Medicine and Dentistry, enacted by the Royal Decree M/3. It stipulates rules regarding patient consent for medical procedures, emphasizing that a mentally sound adult, regardless of gender, has the right to consent for medical treatments (Al-Amoudi, 2017).

The primary goal of this law is to clarify the consent process for medical treatments and surgeries. It aims to empower patients by giving them autonomy in making informed decisions about their healthcare. This law particularly impacts women, overriding cultural norms that might require male guardian approval for medical treatments (Al-Amoudi, 2017). This law can potentially speed up medical interventions and reduce morbidity and mortality by ensuring patients can consent to their medical treatments. It can improve patient satisfaction and trust in healthcare providers, enhancing healthcare services in Saudi Arabia.

While this law is progressive, there is a lack of awareness among healthcare providers and the general public about these rights. This ignorance can lead to misconceptions and suboptimal care, particularly for women who may still be subjected to guardian consent due to cultural norms (Sawsan et al., 2020). Therefore, there is a need for increased awareness campaigns and education programs to ensure that both healthcare providers and patients are fully aware of these rights.

Law 2: A Close Look at Mandatory Health Insurance for Expatriates in Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabian government mandates health insurance for all expatriates under the Cooperative Health Insurance Law, enforced by the Council of Cooperative Health Insurance (CCHI). Saudi Arabian Labor Law, specifically Articles 144 and 145, mandates that all expatriates in the country have healthcare access. The law’s primary purpose is to lessen the financial load on the public healthcare system. It does this by requiring companies to offer health insurance to their foreign workers. This ensures that expatriates can get the medical care they need without putting extra pressure on the country’s resources (Expat Arrivals, n.d.).

Mandatory health insurance for expatriates can significantly improve healthcare access and quality. The law helps distribute the healthcare load between the public and private sectors by ensuring that expatriates have insurance. This can lead to better healthcare facilities, reduced waiting times, and improved healthcare outcomes. Moreover, it encourages preventive care, as insured individuals are more likely to seek medical advice for minor issues before they escalate (Insubuy, n.d.).

Nonetheless, the law has sparked questions about the adequacy of the insurance coverage provided. Sometimes, the primary insurance does not cover certain crucial healthcare services, resulting in additional costs that expatriates must pay themselves. Additionally, there is a lack of awareness among expatriates about how to utilize their insurance effectively (Insubuy, n.d.). To tackle these issues, greater clarity and education are needed about what the insurance covers and how to use it effectively.

In summary, the Mandatory Health Insurance for Expatriates law is critical to making sure that foreign residents in Saudi Arabia can access healthcare. By requiring that expatriates have health insurance, the law safeguards their health and helps maintain the public healthcare system’s long-term viability.

Law 3: Understanding Women’s Right to Consent for Medical Procedures in Saudi Arabia

Article 60 of the Hospital Management and Medical By-Laws in Saudi Arabia clearly states that a woman is legally responsible for herself and shall be asked to consent to medical procedures. In addition, the Ministerial Resolution that brings into effect the Regulations on the Practice of Medicine and Dentistry, as per Royal Decree M/3 dated October 2, 1988, further supports this (Al-Amoudi, 2017). This law mainly focuses on allowing Saudi Arabian women to make their own healthcare choices. It seeks to clear up misunderstandings about women’s rights to consent in healthcare matters, especially in surgical operations such as cesarean sections. The law is designed to align with Islamic rules and regulations supporting women’s health rights.

This law could provide more timely and appropriate medical care by empowering women to make healthcare decisions. It removes the need for male guardian approval, thus expediting medical procedures and potentially reducing morbidity and mortality rates. The law also aligns with international human rights standards, enhancing Saudi Arabia’s global healthcare reputation. By granting women the right to consent to their medical treatments, this law can enhance healthcare results for women and positively impact the community’s general health (Al-Amoudi, 2017).

Nevertheless, even with this law in place, there are hurdles in making it effective. Both healthcare providers and the general public may not be fully aware of women’s rights to consent to their healthcare. This lack of awareness can result in treatment delays and continue to perpetuate gender disparities in access to healthcare services (Ministry of Health, n.d.). Moreover, cultural norms and family pressures may still influence women’s ability to exercise their legal rights fully. To tackle these issues, more awareness campaigns and educational programs are needed. These should aim to make sure that healthcare providers, as well as patients, are fully informed about these consent rights.

Overall, the Women’s Right to Consent for Medical Procedures law is crucial in empowering women in Saudi Arabia to make their own healthcare decisions. This law aims to enhance women’s healthcare results and benefit the wider community’s health by giving them the authority to consent to their medical treatments.


This essay has critically analyzed three pivotal healthcare laws in Saudi Arabia, namely the Ministerial Resolution on Consent for Medical Procedures, Mandatory Health Insurance for Expatriates, and the Women’s Right to Consent for Medical Procedures. These laws are central components in the ongoing initiative of examining key healthcare laws in Saudi Arabia, each playing a distinct yet vital role in enhancing the healthcare landscape in the nation.

The Ministerial Resolution on Consent for Medical Procedures aims to empower patients, particularly women, by giving them the autonomy to make informed decisions about their healthcare. Mandatory Health Insurance for Expatriates aims to distribute the healthcare load between the public and private sectors, thereby improving healthcare facilities and outcomes. The law on Women’s Right to Consent further empowers women to make their own healthcare decisions, aligning with international human rights standards.

However, these laws are not without challenges. Issues such as lack of awareness among healthcare providers and the public and cultural norms can hinder their effective implementation. Continuous education and awareness-raising are essential for fully realizing these laws’ objectives. As Saudi Arabia continues to evolve its healthcare system, these laws serve as crucial pillars that aim to improve healthcare outcomes and align the Kingdom with international healthcare standards. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of these laws in achieving their intended outcomes.


Al-Amoudi, S. M. (2017). Health empowerment and health rights in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 38(8), 785.

Al Asmri, M., Almalki, M. J., Fitzgerald, G., & Clark, M. (2019). The public healthcare system and primary care services in Saudi Arabia: A system in transition. East Mediterr Health J, 25.

Expat Arrivals. (n.d.). Healthcare in Saudi Arabia.

Insubuy. (n.d.). Saudi Arabia Expatriate Health Insurance: Everything You Need to Know About Expat Health Insurance in Saudi Arabia.

Kaur, K., Prasad, A. B., Hsu, C. Y., Odongo, J. O., Sharma, S., Ajaj, Y., … & Nabi, Z. (2023). Nanotechnology at Workplace: Risks, Ethics, Precautions and Regulatory Considerations. Springer Nature Switzerland.

Ministry of Health. (n.d.). Hospital Management and Medical By-Laws, Article 60.

Sawsan K., Abrar F, Eman E., Alhalal N., Royes J., Haytham W., & Dhafer A. (2020). Assessment of knowledge and attitude toward the new antibiotic dispensing law and its effect on antibiotic use in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 28(1), 58–67.

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