Individual Project Title

— Writing an abstract it not easy and they can often become bland and irrelevant.

One or two sentences providing a basic introduction to the field, comprehensible to a scientist in any discipline. Two to three sentences of more detailed background, comprehensible to scientists in related disciplines. One sentence clearly stating the general problem being addressed by this particular study. One sentence summarizing the main result (with the words “here we show” or their equivalent). Two or three sentences explaining what the main result reveals in direct comparison to what was thought to be the case previously, or how the main result adds to previous knowledge. One or two sentences to put the results into a more general context.

Index Terms—Enter key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas. For a list of suggested keywords, visit



HE INTRODUCTION of your article is all about placing your work into the broader research context, and then narrowing your focus to identify specifically what you have done in your project: i.e., your research goals and objectives. It can include your aims and objectives modified from your project initiation document (PID) or Interim Technical Report, and a summary version of your literature review. In this section you should clearly define the problem, identifying any constraints. What are the key objectives that must be met? Can a system diagram be included?

You should include the relevant background theory and scientific principles necessary to underpin your project, and explain any relevant historical, current and future developments and technologies. You should provide a thorough understanding of current practice and its limitations, and some appreciation of likely new developments. This should be put into context with your project and your own engineering specialisation. Use references rather than repeating information which can be found in books, journal papers, or standards. The correct use of references is explained in the IEEE Style Guide at the end of this document.

II.    Impact of Covid-19

Please describe here what impact, if any, the lockdown due to Covid-19 has had on your project. If relevant, you should provide a short summary of what changes to the original specifications, aims and/or methodologies, as presented in the PID, have been necessary due to the lockdown.

III.    Methodology

In this section you should provide a concise explanation of your methodology that contains enough detail that someone else could replicate the key aspects of your project. Aim to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the key design processes and methodologies relevant to your work. Therefore, you need to briefly explain how you have tackled your project. You should have written a detailed description in your interim report so reference that document where appropriate. This section should:

  • Outline your rationale for the approach you have taken. What was the approach that you chose to solve the problems identified in the specification?
  • Describe your approach to meeting project aims and objectives. i.e. What relevant skills were required?
  • Include not only how and why you collected data, but also how and why you applied specific analysis techniques. i.e. What equipment and/or software did you use to successfully complete your project, and how was it used?
  • Be linked back to the literature to explain why you are using certain methods, and the academic basis of your choice.
  • Explain what you have done and with any refinements that you have made as your work progressed. Did you need to consider manufacturing, operation, maintenance, reliability etc.?

We do not expect to see a bullet point list in this section. It should be a coherent paragraph or short series of paragraphs.

IV.    Results & Evaluation

The Results section should set out your key experimental results, including any statistical analysis and whether or not the results of these are significant. If you are unsure whether to include certain results, go back to your specification and decide whether the results are relevant to them.

Where applicable, you should be able to work with information that may be incomplete or uncertain, quantify the effect of this on the design and, where appropriate, use theory or experimental research to mitigate deficiencies. Can you identify, classify and describe the performance of your design/system/components through the use of analytical methods and modelling techniques?

You should be aiming to demonstrate your ability to:

  • Develop an innovative solution to your project to fulfill the design specifications or research requirements. Try to show how you developed your solution and what lessons you learned.
  • Evaluate how the design parameters influence your results. Quantify the effect of the design parameters using experimental and computational/theoretical approaches in order to validate your results. 
  • Apply mathematical techniques to support the critical analysis and understanding of your results.

Students should demonstrate their ability to: methodically apply engineering principles; show critical evaluation skills in the wider context of the research field; collect and make use of data and draw conclusions.

V.    Discussion

The discussion is where you pull your results together into a coherent story, and put that story in context by referring back to your own results and to other peoples’ research. By the end of the discussion, you should have addressed the goals and objectives you outlined in your introduction. Where appropriate, this Section may be combined with the Conclusions.

VI.    Conclusions 

The conclusions tie up the paper by reiterating the research question, restating the significant results and the story they tell. What are the key findings of your work so far? What are the advantages of your work? Is there a benefit to society from your work? What are the limitations of your work? Is it fit for purpose? Do you need to consider design for manufacture or product end of life? What has gone wrong? Demonstrate that you can apply advanced problem-solving skills, technical knowledge and understanding to establish rigorous and creative solutions that are fit for purpose for all aspects of the problem.

VII.    Future Work

Identify the limitations of your work and any areas for further research or development. 


  • N. Author1 and F. N. Author2, “The title of the conference,” in Title of the Proceeding, vol. 3, DOI XX/XXXX/ZZZ.XXXX.XXXXXXX, pp. 1–6, Apr. 2003.
  • N. Author1, F. N. Author2 and F. N. Author3, “The title of the article,” Other Journal, vol. IA-21, DOI XX/XXXX/ZZZ.XXXX.XXXXXXX, no. 4, pp. 814–821, Mar. 1990.
  • N. Author1, “The title of the article,” Journal title, vol. 56, DOI XX/XXXX/ZZZ.XXXX.XXXXXXX, no. 2, pp. 581–588, Feb. 2009.
  • N. Author1, F. N. Author2, and F. N. Author3, “The title of the article,” Journal title, vol. 1, DOI XX/XXXX/ZZ.XXXX.XXXXXXX, no. 4, pp. 58–67, Jan. 2017.


Appendices are not included in the page count of your submission. They can be used to provide supplementary information of interest to the reader that would distract from the main story. These might include Figures and Tables not included in the main body of the document, code listings, PCB layouts, complex circuit diagrams, etc. Where possible they should comply with the IEEE Style Guide but if you are unsure, ask your supervisor for guidance.

The following pages include the IEEE Style Guide and should be used when formatting your document.

I.    IEEE Formatting Instructions

Abstract—These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IEEE Transactions and Journals. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word 6.0 or later. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at IEEE. Paper titles should be written in uppercase and lowercase letters, not all uppercase. Avoid writing long formulas with subscripts in the title; short formulas that identify the elements are fine (e.g., “Nd–Fe–B”). Do not write “(Invited)” in the title. Full names of authors are preferred in the author field, but are not required. Put a space between authors’ initials. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column.



HIS DOCUMENT is a template for Microsoft Word versions 6.0 or later.

III.    Guidelines For Manuscript Preparation

When you open TRANS-JOUR.DOC, select “Page Layout” from the “View” menu in the menu bar (View | Page Layout), (these instructions assume MS 6.0. Some versions may have alternate ways to access the same functionalities noted here). Then, type over sections of TRANS-JOUR.DOC or cut and paste from another document and use markup styles. The pull-down style menu is at the left of the Formatting Toolbar at the top of your Word window (for example, the style at this point in the document is “Text”). Highlight a section that you want to designate with a certain style, then select the appropriate name on the style menu. The style will adjust your fonts and line spacing. Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Use italics for emphasis; do not underline.

To insert images in Word, position the cursor at the insertion point and either use Insert | Picture | From File or copy the image to the Windows clipboard and then Edit | Paste Special | Picture (with “float over text” unchecked).

IEEE will do the final formatting of your paper. If your paper is intended for a conference, please observe the conference page limits.

A.    Abbreviations and Acronyms

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have already been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, ac, and dc do not have to be defined. Abbreviations that incorporate periods should not have spaces: write “C.N.R.S.,” not “C. N. R. S.” Do not use abbreviations in the title unless they are unavoidable (for example, “IEEE” in the title of this article).

B.    Other Recommendations

Use one space after periods and colons. Hyphenate complex modifiers: “zero-field-cooled magnetization.” Avoid dangling participles, such as, “Using (1), the potential was calculated.” [It is not clear who or what used (1).] Write instead, “The potential was calculated by using (1),” or “Using (1), we calculated the potential.”

Use a zero before decimal points: “0.25,” not “.25.” Use “cm3,” not “cc.” Indicate sample dimensions as “0.1 cm ´ 0.2 cm,” not “0.1 ´ 0.2 cm2.” The abbreviation for “seconds” is “s,” not “sec.” Use “Wb/m2” or “webers per square meter,” not “webers/m2.” When expressing a range of values, write “7 to 9” or “7-9,” not “7~9.”

A parenthetical statement at the end of a sentence is punctuated outside of the closing parenthesis (like this). (A parenthetical sentence is punctuated within the parentheses.) In English, periods and commas are within quotation marks, like “this period.” Other punctuation is “outside”! Avoid contractions; for example, write “do not” instead of “don’t.”


If you are using Word, use either the Microsoft Equation Editor or the MathType add-on ( for equations in your paper (Insert | Object | Create New | Microsoft Equation or MathType Equation). “Float over text” should not be selected.

A.    Equations

Number equations consecutively with equation numbers in parentheses flush with the right margin, as in (1). First use the equation editor to create the equation. Then select the “Equation” markup style. Press the tab key and write the equation number in parentheses. To make your equations more compact, you may use the solidus ( / ), the exp function, or appropriate exponents. Use parentheses to avoid ambiguities in denominators.


Be sure that the symbols in your equation have been defined before the equation appears or immediately following. Italicize symbols (T might refer to temperature, but T is the unit tesla). Refer to “(1),” not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1),” except at the beginning of a sentence: “Equation (1) is … .”

V.    Units

Use either SI (MKS) or CGS as primary units. (SI units are strongly encouraged.) English units may be used as secondary units (in parentheses). This applies to papers in data storage. For example, write “15 Gb/cm2 (100 Gb/in2).” An exception is when English units are used as identifiers in trade, such as “3½-in disk drive.” Avoid combining SI and CGS units, such as current in amperes and magnetic field in oersteds. This often leads to confusion because equations do not balance dimensionally. If you must use mixed units, clearly state the units for each quantity in an equation.

The SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. However, if you wish to use units of T, either refer to magnetic flux density B or magnetic field strength symbolized as µ0H. Use the center dot to separate compound units, e.g., “A·m2.”
Fig. 1.  Magnetization as a function of applied field. Note that “Fig.” is abbreviated. There is a period after the figure number, followed by two spaces. It is good practice to explain the significance of the figure in the caption. 
TABLE IUnits for Magnetic PropertiesSymbolQuantityConversion from Gaussian andCGS EMU to SI aFmagnetic flux1 Mx ® 108 Wb = 108 V·sBmagnetic flux density,  magnetic induction1 G ® 104 T = 104 Wb/m2Hmagnetic field strength1 Oe ® 103/(4p) A/mmmagnetic moment1 erg/G = 1 emu  ® 103 A·m2 = 103 J/TMMagnetization1 erg/(G·cm3) = 1 emu/cm3  ® 103 A/m4pMMagnetization1 G ® 103/(4p) A/msspecific magnetization1 erg/(G·g) = 1 emu/g ® 1 A·m2/kgjmagnetic dipole  moment1 erg/G = 1 emu  ® 4p ´ 1010 Wb·mJmagnetic polarization1 erg/(G·cm3) = 1 emu/cm3  ® 4p ´ 104 Tc, kSusceptibility1 ® 4pcrmass susceptibility1 cm3/g ® 4p ´ 103 m3/kgmPermeability1 ® 4p ´ 107 H/m  = 4p ´ 107 Wb/(A·m)mrrelative permeabilitym ® mrw, Wenergy density1 erg/cm3 ® 101 J/m3N, Ddemagnetizing factor1 ® 1/(4p)Vertical lines are optional in tables. Statements that serve as captions for the entire table do not need footnote letters.aGaussian units are the same as cg emu for magnetostatics; Mx = maxwell, G = gauss, Oe = oersted; Wb = weber, V = volt, s = second, T = tesla, m = meter, A = ampere, J = joule, kg = kilogram, H = henry.  

VI.    Guidelines for Graphics Preparation

A.    Types of Graphics

The following list outlines the different types of graphics published in IEEE journals. They are categorized based on their construction, and use of color / shades of gray:

1)    Color/Grayscale figures

Figures that are meant to appear in color, or shades of black/gray. Such figures may include photographs,
illustrations, multicolor graphs, and flowcharts.

2)    Lineart figures

Figures that are composed of only black lines and shapes. These figures should have no shades or half-tones of gray. Only black and white.

3)    Tables

Data charts which are typically black and white, but sometimes include color.

B.     Multipart figures

Figures compiled of more than one sub-figure presented side-by-side, or stacked. If a multipart figure is made up of multiple figure types (one part is lineart, and another is grayscale or color) the figure should meet the stricter guidelines.

C.    Sizing of Graphics

Most charts, graphs, and tables are one column wide (3.5 inches / 88 millimeters / 21 picas) or page wide (7.16 inches / 181 millimeters / 43 picas). The maximum depth a graphic can be is 8.5 inches (216 millimeters / 54 picas). When choosing the depth of a graphic, please allow space for a caption.

D.    Resolution

The proper resolution of your figures will depend on the type of figure it is as defined in the “Types of Figures” section. Colour, and grayscale figures should be at least 300dpi. Lineart, including tables should be a minimum of 600dpi.

E.    Using Labels Within Figures

1)    Figure Axis labels

Figure axis labels are often a source of confusion. Use words rather than symbols. As an example, write the quantity “Magnetization,” or “Magnetization M,” not just “M.” Put units in parentheses. Do not label axes only with units. As in Fig. 1, for example, write “Magnetization (A/m)” or “Magnetization (A m-1),” not just “A/m.” Do not label axes with a ratio of quantities and units. For example, write “Temperature (K),” not “Temperature/K.”

Multipliers can be especially confusing. Write “Magnetization (kA/m)” or “Magnetization (103 A/m).” Do not write “Magnetization (A/m) ´ 1000” because the reader would not know whether the top axis label in Fig. 1 meant 16000 A/m or 0.016 A/m. Figure labels should be legible, approximately 8 to 10 point type.

2)    Subfigure Labels in Multipart Figures and Tables

Multipart figures should be combined and labeled before final submission. Labels should appear centered below each subfigure in 8 point Times New Roman font in the format of (a) (b) (c).

F.     Referencing a Figure or Table Within Your Paper

When referencing your figures and tables within your paper, use the abbreviation “Fig.” even at the beginning of a sentence. Do not abbreviate “Table.” Tables should be numbered with Roman Numerals.

References and Footnotes

A.            References

References need not be cited in text. When they are, number citations on the line, in square brackets inside the punctuation.  Multiple references are each numbered with separate brackets. When citing a section in a book, please give the relevant page numbers. In text, refer simply to the reference number. Do not use “Ref.” or “reference” except at the beginning of a sentence: “Reference [3] shows … .” Please do not use automatic endnotes in Word, rather, type the reference list at the end of the paper using the “References” style.

Reference numbers are set flush left and form a column of their own, hanging out beyond the body of the reference. The reference numbers are on the line, enclosed in square brackets. In all references, the given name of the author or editor is abbreviated to the initial only and precedes the last name. Use them all; use et al. only if names are not given. Use commas around Jr., Sr., and III in names. Abbreviate conference titles.  When citing IEEE transactions, provide the issue number, page range, volume number, year, and/or month if available. When referencing a patent, provide the day and the month of issue, or application. References may not include all information; please obtain and include relevant information. Do not combine references. There must be only one reference with each number. If there is a URL included with the print reference, it can be included at the end of the reference.

Other than books, capitalize only the first word in a paper title, except for proper nouns and element symbols. For papers published in translation journals, please give the English citation first, followed by the original foreign-language citation See the end of this document for formats and examples of common references. For a complete discussion of references and their formats, see “The IEEE Style Manual,” available as a PDF link off the Author Digital Toolbox main page.

G.    Footnotes

Number footnotes separately in superscripts (Insert | Footnote).[1] Place the actual footnote at the bottom of the column in which it is cited; do not put footnotes in the reference list (endnotes). Use letters for table footnotes (see Table I).


  • N. Author1 and F. N. Author2, “The title of the conference,” in Title of the Proceeding, vol. 3, DOI XX/XXXX/ZZZ.XXXX.XXXXXXX, pp. 1–6, Apr. 2003.
  • N. Author1, F. N. Author2 and F. N. Author3, “The title of the article,” Other Journal, vol. IA-21, DOI XX/XXXX/ZZZ.XXXX.XXXXXXX, no. 4, pp. 814–821, Mar. 1990.
  • N. Author1, “The title of the article,” Journal title, vol. 56, DOI XX/XXXX/ZZZ.XXXX.XXXXXXX, no. 2, pp. 581–588, Feb. 2009.
  • N. Author1, F. N. Author2, and F. N. Author3, “The title of the article,” Journal title, vol. 1, DOI XX/XXXX/ZZ.XXXX.XXXXXXX, no. 4, pp. 58–67, Jan. 2017.

[1]It is recommended that footnotes be avoided (except for the unnumbered footnote with the receipt date on the first page). Instead, try to integrate the footnote information into the text.